A staircase is basically made up of a series of steps, they efficiently and easily take us up and down different floor levels. While some would only go with the basics and focus on the functionality, others will focus on the design and aesthetics as well as the functionality of the stairs.
Although staircases can vary in design, each step must have one or more landings, a handrail and a small overhang that sticks out from the tread above the lower step, allowing it to increase in size without adding centimetres to the general dimensions of the staircase.
The stairs are a structural element that allows connecting different floors in concrete. Generally, it is made up of the following elements:
Rise: The board that forms the face of the step. The maximum individual rise for domestic flights is 220mm.
Stringer: The inclined boards in which the treads and risers are enclosed.
Tread: It is a part of the staircase where a person steps foot.
Nosing: The visible front of the treads.
Newel: The larger vertical component, plain or decorative. You can usually find it on either ends of the balustrade, or at each bend.
Newel Cap: The ornamental top of the newel post. It is decorative, carved shaped or turned.
Baluster: These are the vertical members that are present between handrails and tread (channel in case of cut string). It acts as the infill between the handrail and Channel (or tread if cut string).
Landing: A resting place, or wide step anywhere within the staircase or top of a flight of stairs. Landings are often used to change the direction of a stair.
Handrail: A protective rail made to prevent people or objects from falling into an open stairwell.
To design, a minimum measurement of each component should be taken as per the building codes to avoid any kind of structural failure.
You can review the effective formula developed by the French architect François Blondel, which allows you to determine the correct dimensions of a comfortable and efficient staircase according to its use.